Development of Education

🔆Development of Education

✅1781: Calcutta Madrasah ( Warren Hastings)

✅1791: Sanskrit College, Benaras ( Jonathan Duncan)

✅1800: Fort William College ( Lord Wellesley)

✅ Serampur missionaries were very enthusiastic about spread of education

▪️1813: Charter Act

✅Sanction of 1 lakhs annually
✅ Amount not made available till 1823
✅ Grant sanctioned for Calcutta College ( 1817- Rammohun Roy)

▪️ 1835: Lord Macaulay’s Minute

✅Settled the debate in favour of Anglicists- limited govt resources to be devoted to teaching western sciences and literature through medium of English language alone
✅Neglected mass education
✅Downward filtration theory

✅ 1835: Medical college in Calcutta

▪️1843-53: James Thomson ( LG of NW Province)

✅Developed comprehensive scheme of village education through the medium of vernacular languages
✅Purpose was to train personnel for newly set up Revenue and Public works dept.

✅1844: Applicants for govt employment should possess knowledge of English

▪️1854: Wood’s Despatch ( Magna Carta of English education in India)

✅Responsibility of educating mass and rebuked downward filtration theory
✅Vernacular at school, English in higher studies
✅Stress on female and vocational education and teacher training
✅Education in govt institutions to be secular
✅System of grants-in-aid to encourage private enterprise

▪️Developments:

🔸1857: universities at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras

🔸1849: Bethune School, Calcutta ( JED Bethune)- Education for women
✅ Agriculture Institute at Pusa, Bihar
✅Engineering Institute at Roorkee (1847)

🔸 1856: Calcutta college of engineering

🔸1858: Overseers’ school at Poona ( Poona college of engineering)

🔸1882-83: Hunter Education Commission (Ripon)
✅Confined its recommendations to primary and secondary education
✅ Primary education in vernacular
✅ Transfer of control of primary education to district and municipal boards
✅ High school should have two divisions
✅ Literary- leading to university
✅ Vocational- commercial careers
✅ Attention towards inadequate facilities for female education

🔸1882: Punjab university

🔸1887: Allahabad university

🔸 1902: Raleigh Commission
✅Go into conditions and prospects of universities in India
✅ Based on recommendations of Raleigh, Indian Universities Act

🔸1904: Indian Universities Act
✅Govt veto in universities senate regulations
✅5 lakh rupees to be sanctioned per annum for five years

🔸1906: State of Baroda introduced compulsory education throughout its territories

🔸1913: Resolution on education policy – govt refused to take responsibility of compulsory education

🔸1917-19: Saddler University Commission
✅ Study and report on problems of Calcutta university
✅Reviewed entire field from school education to university education
✅School course should be 12 yrs. Entry into university after intermediate stage for 3 yrs course.

🔸1919: Education shifted to provincial ministries so govt stopped taking direct interest in education
matters.

▪️1929: Hartog Committee

✅ To report on development of education
✅Average students should be diverted to vocational courses after 8th
✅ Admission should be restricted

▪️1937: Wardha scheme of basic education

✅ Congress organised a National Conference on Education in Wardha
✅Zakir hussain committee- detailed national scheme for basic education
✅ Learning through activity
✅ Based on Gandhi’s weekly Harijan
✅ English only after Class 8

▪️1944: Sergeant Plan of Education

✅Pre-primary education for 3-6 yrs age group
✅Free, universal and compulsory elementary education for 6-11 yrs age group
✅Abolition of intermediate course

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